Indo-European Programme

The Indo-European Programme of the Leiden Summer School in Languages and Linguistics consists of courses for beginners and for advanced students. Those interested in Indo-Iranian may consider taking some of the courses taught within the Iranian Programme and the Indological Programme. Those interested in Germanic may take some of the courses of the Germanic programme.

Time Schedule

      Timeslot 1 (9.30 - 11.00)
T. Pronk: Lithuanian   

      Timeslot 2 (11.30 - 13.00)
A. Kloekhorst: Anatolian Accentology [advanced] 
T. Pronk: Old Church Slavic

      Timeslot 3 (14.00 - 15.30)
L. van Beek: Introduction to PIE phonology and morphology
A. Lubotsky: Indo-European Phonology [advanced]  

     Timeslot 4 (16.00 - 17.30)
M. de Vaan: Albanian
V. Sadovski: Indo-European Nominal Composition [advanced]


Lithuanian (9.30 - 11.00)

Tijmen Pronk ( Zagreb)

Course outline
Lithuanian is unique within the field of Indo-European linguistics in that the language as it is spoken today is frequently used for the reconstruction of the Proto-language. This is due to the archaic character of Lithuanian. That is not to say that Lithuanian did not undergo a number of significant changes. The aim of this course is to provide participants with the knowledge that is required to interpret Lithuanian material from an Indo-European perspective. The course will provide a short history of the language from the first book to the standardization of Lithuanian, an overview of Lithuanian grammar and a detailed overview of the historical phonology and morphology of the language. Ample attention will be given to the accentual system of Lithuanian and its role in Indo-European linguistics. Finally, the reading of a short folklore text will allow participants to gain a better understanding of the structure of the language.

This course requires basic familiarity with historical linguistics.


Anatolian Accentology [advanced] (11.30 - 13.00)

Alwin Kloekhorst (Leiden)

Course outline
In most handbooks on Hittite linguistics it is stated that nothing is known about the nature and the place of accentuation of Hittite words. Nevertheless, in the last few decades new insights in several unrelated subjects have unexpectedly yielded some bits and pieces of information about the Hittite accentuation. These indicate that Hittite must (at least partly) have retained the Proto-Indo-European accentuation system. This would make it a very important new witness to the Proto-Indo-European state of affairs, especially since it is now generally accepted that the Anatolian language group to which Hittite belongs must have been the first branch to have split off from Proto-Indo-European.
In this course, the preliminary results of the teacher’s research project Accentuation in Hittite, will be presented. The course will not only deal with specific Hittite matters (spelling issues, historical developments of vowels, metrical analyses of poetic texts), but also with Anatolian matters (consonant gradation, the accentual system of other Anatolian languages) and Proto-Indo-European matters (in what way do the Anatolian data alter our view on certain PIE accentual matters?).

The student should have a basic knowledge of Hittite and of Indo-European reconstruction.


Old Church Slavic (11.30 - 13.00)

Tijmen Pronk (Zagreb)

Course outline
Old Church Slavic is the oldest Slavic that is known to us and is in many respects close to Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed ancestor of all Slavic languages. The course will provide an introduction into the structure of Old Church Slavic and it will explore its Balto-Slavic and Indo-European origins. The focus will be on historical phonology and morphology, while topics like the characteristics of the textual corpus and the historical background of the Old Church Slavic tradition will be treated more briefly. The language will be studied
synchronically in as far as is necessary to understand the historical developments that will be discussed. Some aspects of Old Church Slavic grammar will also be touched upon while reading a short text towards the end of the course.
At the end of the course, participants are expected to have basic structural knowledge of Old Church Slavic, to be able to interpret Old Church Slavic data from an Indo-European perspective and to be aware of the most important literature concerning the historical grammar of Old Church Slavic. 

This course requires basic familiarity with historical linguistics.


Introduction to PIE phonology and morphology (14.00 - 15.30)

Lucien van Beek (Leiden)
The aim of this course is to familiarize the student with the main phonological and morphological issues in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European. We will review the most important elements of the linguistic system from which the different Indo-European languages have developed. The subject matter will be illustrated by means of small exercises in reconstruction. At the end of the course, the student should be able to start investigating problems of IE etymology.

General lay-out
I: Survey of main IE languages, their orthography and linguistic systems
II: Phonemes of PIE, morpheme structure, phonotactics
III: PIE stops
IV: PIE sibilant and resonants, laryngeals (I)
V: PIE vowels and diphthongs, laryngeals (II)

VI: PIE noun inflexion
VII: noun suffixes, internal derivation
VIII: PIE verbal system: conjugation
IX: PIE verbal system: stem formation
X: Exercises in PIE etymology  

Familiarity with languages with a case system; general knowledge of the principles of historical linguistics. All examples from non-Latin alphabets will be given in a Latin transcription. 


Proto-Indo-European Phonology [advanced] (14.00 - 15.30)

Alexander Lubotsky (Leiden)

In this course we shall be dealing with the reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European phonological system. We shall review the evidence for various reconstructions and discuss the methodological issues involved.

Course Outline
I.          Introduction (phonetics/phonology, role of typology, relative chronology)
II.        Vowels (the problem of the vowel a, the lengthened grade)
III.       Vocalic resonants (vocalization, Sievers’ Law, Lindeman’s Law)
IV.       Laryngeals (positions of neutralization, phonetics)
V.        Root structure, constraints 

VI.       Stops, the glottalic theory 
VII.     The velar series (two or three rows?)
VIII.    Consonant clusters, the movable s
IX.       PIE tones
X.        Proto-Indo-European sound laws

The student should be familiar with the methods of historical linguistics and preferably have a background of at least one year of Indo-European linguistics.


Proto-Indo-European Nominal Composition [advanced] (16.00 - 17.30)

Velizar Sadovski (Vienna)

This course will present an integrate picture of nominal composition in Proto-Indo-European, based on the data of a large number of individual language groups. The voluminous material comprises not only archaic IE languages like Indo-Iranian, Greek, Latin or Anatolian but also language families traditionally less considered in this context, like Balto-Slavic and Armenian. The aim of the course is to give not only a detailed account of classical and modern classification systems used for describing nominal compounds but also to analyze the individual compound classes, explicitly referring to phenomena of (non-compositional) nominal derivation, like e.g. internal vs. external derivation, compound and simplex affixation, ablaut and accent phenomena.


Introduction to Albanian: synchrony and diachrony (16.00 - 17.30)

Michiel de Vaan (Leiden)

Course description
This course offers an introduction to the main grammatical features of the modern Albanian language and its dialects, the philology of Albanian, and selected topics from the historical grammar and etymology. We will read and listen to small text samples from modern and 16th-century texts, and we will review the linguistic questions most relevant to Indo-Europeanists.

Familiarity with the method of historical linguistics.

Course outline
I:        Albanian, its dialects and its history. Oldest texts.
II.       Outline of Albanian grammar.
III.      Reading modern texts.
IV.      Reading Buzuku (16th century).
V.       Historical phonology.

VI.      History of the lexicon.
VII.     History of the nominal and pronominal inflexion.
VIII.    History of the verbal inflexion.
IX.      Topics in Balkan linguistics.
X.        Listening to Albanian speech (20th century).

Daily preparation (exercises) and participation. Final paper (for additional ECTS credits).