Project 1: Pressure groups

In her Post-doc research, Dr. Maartje Janse investigates the realization in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1820s and 1830s that mass organizations could challenge political power; the first British and American experiments with pressure groups; and the impact their example had in continental Europe.

Project 2: Associations in the European Revolutions of 1848

The PhD candidate Geerten Waling MA studies revolutionary organizations in Paris and Berlin around 1848. The image of organizing as a revolutionary activity challenges our understanding of revolutionary conduct, which tends to focus on barricades, street fighting, and red banners. However, the concept and practice of organization figured prominently in the European Revolutions of 1848.

Project 3: The birth of mass political parties

The PhD candidate Anne Heyer MSc studies the initial phase of the mass political parties at the end of the 19th century. The meaning of the words ‘political party’ changed in this period. Until then they had referred to an ideology, a political ‘current’ or an at best loosely connected parliamentary group. Now the words meant a well-organized political group based on an ideology, putting up candidates at elections, and with a mass following outside of parliament.